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Field ion microscopy (FIM), invented in 1951 by Erwin Müller [1,

2], is a high electric field technique which uniquely enables imaging of

surfaces with atomic resolution. FIM is based on ionization of an imaging

gas in the vicinity of a field-emitter tip as a consequence of the

locally high electric field. The high electric field is achieved by applying

a high voltage of a few kilovolts onto a very sharp needle-shaped specimen

maintained at a temperature usually below 80 K. Specimens are

either electropolished [3] or milled with a focused ion beam (FIB) [4]

into a very sharp needle tip with an end radius below 100 nm. The

advantage of using FIB for specimen preparation lies in its site specific

application for extracting tips in microstructure regions of high interest

such as across internal interfaces. An excellent review on using FIB for

site specific specimen preparation can be found in reference [4].

Once the specimen is mounted an imaging gas is introduced. The

introduced imaging gas gets attracted by the cold surface due to polarization

forces. The gas atoms then thermally accommodate with the

cold tip surface by performing a series of “ hops”. Surrounding the tip

surface there exists a critical zone, where the maximum ionization occurs.

This surface usually lies around 1–4 Å above the tip [5]. During

the “ hops”, the ionization probability for the gas atoms can be considerable

as they spend a significant amount of time in the critical

surface. As a consequence an electron can tunnel from the imaging gas

atom into the tip. The ionized gas atom is accelerated away from the

positively biased tip and towards the detector, where gas ions contribute

to image formation.

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